What are the Humanities?
The humanities are the avenue through which scholars contemplate and explore enduring questions of meaning and value facing
society. At the core of the humanities is the richness of human cultures and creativity. Case Western Reserve University's location
amongst the world-class arts and culture institutions that make up University Circle offers a distinctive and unique environment
for the study of the humanities.
Through its Baker-Nord Center for the Humanities, CWRU pursues its commitment to the humanities and to providing its faculty
and students the tools and support they need to make new connections and gain deeper understanding of a range of humanities topics.
The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, which created the National Endowment for the Humanities,
defined the humanities thusly: The term "humanities" includes, but is not limited to, the study and interpretation of the following:
language, both modern and classical; linguistics; literature; history; jurisprudence; philosophy; archeology; comparative religion;
ethics; the history, criticism, and theory of the arts; those aspects of the social sciences which have humanistic content and employ
humanistic methods; and the study and application of the humanities to the human environment with particular attention to reflecting
our diverse heritage, traditions, and history and to the relevance of the humanities to the current conditions of national life."
Furthermore, "The Congress finds and declares the following:
- The arts and the humanities belong to all the people of the United States.
- The encouragement and support of national progress and scholarship in the humanities and the arts,
while primarily a matter for private and local initiative, are also appropriate matters of concern to the
- An advanced civilization must not limit its efforts to science and technology alone, but must give full
value and support to the other great branches of scholarly and cultural activity in order to achieve a better
understanding of the past, a better analysis of the present, and a better view of the future.
- Democracy demands wisdom and vision in its citizens. It must therefore foster and support a form of education,
and access to the arts and the humanities, designed to make people of all backgrounds and wherever located masters
of their technology and not its unthinking servants.
- It is necessary and appropriate for the Federal Government to complement, assist, and add to programs for the
advancement of the humanities and the arts by local, State, regional, and private agencies and their organizations.
In doing so, the Government must be sensitive to the nature of public sponsorship. Public funding of the arts and
humanities is subject to the conditions that traditionally govern the use of public money. Such funding should contribute
to public support and confidence in the use of taxpayer funds. Public funds provided by the Federal Government must ultimately
serve public purposes the Congress defines.
- The arts and the humanities reflect the high place accorded by the American people to the nation's rich cultural heritage
and to the fostering of mutual respect for the diverse beliefs and values of all persons and groups.
- The practice of art and the study of the humanities require constant dedication and devotion. While no government can call
a great artist or scholar into existence, it is necessary and appropriate for the Federal Government to help create and
sustain not only a climate encouraging freedom of thought, imagination, and inquiry but also the material conditions facilitating
the release of this creative talent.
- The world leadership which has come to the United States cannot rest solely upon superior power, wealth, and technology,
but must be solidly founded upon worldwide respect and admiration for the Nation's high qualities as a leader in the realm of
ideas and of the spirit.
- Americans should receive in school, background and preparation in the arts and humanities to enable them to recognize and
appreciate the aesthetic dimensions of our lives, the diversity of excellence that comprises our cultural heritage, and artistic
and scholarly expression.
- It is vital to a democracy to honor and preserve its multicultural artistic heritage as well as support new ideas, and
therefore it is essential to provide financial assistance to its artists and the organizations that support their work.
- To fulfill its educational mission, achieve an orderly continuation of free society, and provide models of excellence to
the American people, the Federal Government must transmit the achievement and values of civilization from the past via the present
to the future, and make widely available the greatest achievements of art.
- In order to implement these findings and purposes, it is desirable to establish a
National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities."
Other organizations offering insightful overviews of the state of the humanities include the Ohio Humanities Council, the American Council of Learned Societies (see, in particular the reports section), and the American Association of Universities (see in particular their 2004 report on Reinvigorating the Humanities).